Type specific operator

Hi all,
Ruby is a dynamically typed language so it checks at run time the type
of the variable and calls corresponding operator. For example “x + y”
will be checked for type of x and y if both will be fixnum then
corresponding addition action will be performed if both are strings the
corresponding appending action will be performed.
My question is"
Is there any type specific operator facility available in ruby? If
somehow we can infer the type of the variables then we can directly use
those specific operators. I am not aware about any such operator. IF
there is any please give me the references.

Thanks
amitraj

Is there any type specific operator facility available in ruby?

You can overload operators on specific classes if you want custom
behaviour:

class Foo
attr_reader :size

def initialize(n)
@size = n
end

def +(other)
Foo.new(@size + other.size)
end
end

Foo.new(9) + Foo.new(3)

=> #<Foo:0x7f8b6f762d00 @size=12>

On Wednesday 09 July 2008, Amitraj singh Chouhan wrote:

there is any please give me the references.

Thanks
amitraj

I’m not sure I undestand correctly what you mean, but I think you have a
wrong
idea of how operators work in ruby. Most operators are simply shortcuts
for
method calls, so that, for example

1 + 3

is translated by the ruby interpreter to

1.+(3)

This means that, when ruby sees the expression 1 + 3, it tries to call
the +
method on the 1 object passing as argument the 3 object. If you write
something like:

1 + ‘a’

ruby will try to pass ‘a’ as argument to the + method of 1. But since
that
method can only handle objects of class Numeric or objects which have a
coerce
method, and strings don’t have it, it raises an exception.

If you want to define operators for your own classes, you simply need to
define the corresponding method:

class C

attr_reader :x
def initialize x
@x = x
end

def +(other)
case other
when Integer then return C.new other + @x
when C then C.new @x + other.x
else raise ArgumentError,“You can’t add an object of class
#{other.class}”
end
end

end

c = C.new 3
c1 = c + 2
puts c1.x
c2 = c + C.new(5)
puts c2.x
c + ‘a’

The above code gives:
5
8
ArgumentError,"You can’t add an object of class String

(note that doing 1+c would raise a TypeError exception, since in this
case the
method call would be 1.+©, instead of c.+(1), and that Integer#+
doesn’t
know how to handle instances of class C).

I hope this helps

Stefano

Thanks for making me correct. But as in case of x + y it gets converted
to x.+(y). So here the type of x must be known(that is what I mean by
checking type of x) and also to execute + method of x’s class and to
pass it argument y, type of y must be known(that is what I mean by
checking the type of y).
These checkings will be done at run time. My question is if we have an
Idea about the type of x and y initially(at the time of writing the
program) can we eliminate these type checks. I mean is there any
operator or method call that will directly treat x and y as fixnum. i.e.
something like
int+(x,y) //specific function for adding two
integer
string+(x,y) //specific function for appending
two strings
or any thing like that which will directly treat x and y as variables
known types

I hope you will be getting my point.
Please give me the details if there is any such thing in ruby.

Thanks
amitraj

On Wed, Jul 9, 2008 at 10:24 AM, Amitraj singh Chouhan
[email protected] wrote:

Thanks for making me correct. But as in case of x + y it gets converted
to x.+(y). So here the type of x must be known(that is what I mean by
checking type of x) and also to execute + method of x’s class and to
pass it argument y, type of y must be known(that is what I mean by
checking the type of y).
You can call x.class but believe me that will not give you an exact
idea where the message :+ will be intercepted.

These checkings will be done at run time.
I would not call it checkings, I would call it method dispatch. AFAIK
the message will be dispatched up the ancestor chain until an
implementing method is found, if none is found the same search is
repeated for #method_missing, however…
My question is if we have an
Idea about the type of x and y initially(at the time of writing the
program) can we eliminate these type checks. I mean is there any
operator or method call that will directly treat x and y as fixnum. i.e.
something like
int+(x,y) //specific function for adding two
integer
string+(x,y) //specific function for appending
two strings
or any thing like that which will directly trea
I believe that people are working on such optimizations via dynamic
code analysis but really I am not good enough to give any detailed
information about this :(.

Maybe you should have a closer look into jruby.
HTH
Robert

http://ruby-smalltalk.blogspot.com/


AALST (n.) One who changes his name to be further to the front
D.Adams; The Meaning of LIFF

Amitraj singh Chouhan wrote:

These checkings will be done at run time. My question is if we have an
Idea about the type of x and y initially(at the time of writing the
program) can we eliminate these type checks.

Why would you want to? Are you trying to solve a specific problem, or
understand conceptually? Are you assuming some sort of efficiency gain
by doing as you would like?

I mean is there any
operator or method call that will directly treat x and y as fixnum. i.e.
something like
int+(x,y) //specific function for adding two
integer
string+(x,y) //specific function for appending
two strings
or any thing like that which will directly treat x and y as variables
known types
Objects such as Fixnum and String have a + method that they respond to:

x=1
=> 1

x.respond_to?("+")
=> true
or not:

h= {:a =>1}
=> {:a=>1}

h2 = {:b => “foo”}
=> {:b=>“foo”}

h.respond_to?("+")
=> false

new_h = h+h2
NoMethodError: undefined method `+’ for {:a=>1}:Hash
from (irb):3

This is the idea behind DuckTyping. It doesn’t matter the type of the
object, so long as it responds to a specific message, all is well. As
you see above, you can investigate for yourself ahead of time if the
receiver responds to a particular message with respond_to?, but that
doesn’t really accomplish what you are looking for, specifically, in
terms of the Ruby interpreter doing it’s job at runtime.

Howard

Hajime-mashite > Amitraj-san

I’m not sure I got your point of problem, but
the discussion so far reminds me of a conceptual problem;

in Smalltalk(and in ruby, nowadays),
(1 + ‘a’) and (‘a’ + 1) could give different answers.
These language isn’t ‘symmetrical’ in such point.

So…

On 2008/07/09, at 18:51, Amitraj singh Chouhan wrote:

not any specific program but any program which uses such operators.

if it’s your problem for daily life,
You could give a try on CLOS: a OOL in Lisp fashion.

Or CLOS is not practical for you,
You could define Classes in Ruby to
establish Sets --in mathematical sense-- in which
your Operators of concern go with Commutability.

Ruby is in a spirits of Do-It-YourSelf, I guess.

oop. moderate choice is there: Smalltalk.

The choices are up to you.

=======================
2 bits thinking helps 66.7%

Shindo Motoaki (Motoakira)

21, Higashi-Kurayoshi machi
Yonago City, Tottori Pref.
683-0815, Japan
TEL 81-859-33-7431/81-90-7593-3585
[email protected]

Why would you want to? Are you trying to solve a specific problem, or
understand conceptually? Are you assuming some sort of efficiency gain
by doing as you would like?
Yes I would like to optimize the program, not any specific program but
any program which uses such operators.

Can I get some reference for the working of the interpreter, I mean how
it process the given ruby program. Is there any link or document which
describes the step by step actions performed by interpreter and the
description of those steps.

-amitraj

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