On Sat, Feb 10, 2007 at 07:42:45AM +0900, Alex Y. wrote:
I thought I understood what user and system times meant. Then I saw
this from Benchmark, while comparing response times of a WEBrick server
and a Mongrel server:
user system total real
webrick 29.580000 4.920000 34.500000 ( 87.191739)
mongrel 27.640000 4.540000 32.180000 ( 58.508197)
Clearly the mongrel server wins, but why does it only show in the
With webrick, the process is waiting for some external event.
Where did the rest of the time go? This is
repeatable, so I don’t think it’s interference from any other processes
on the machine.
Something which might be hurting webrick is if it hasn’t turned off TCP
Nagle (socket option TCP_NODELAY). If the process sends less than 1500
bytes, the kernel will wait for 0.1 seconds to see if there’s more to
before actually sending a packet.
However, in the real world this is unlikely to be a problem.
To be clear here, what I’m actually measuring is the time taken for
10000 queries to be serviced from a separate process, and the webrick
and mongrel servers are also each in their own process. Everything’s on
You’d need to be more specific than that. Are you opening a fresh TCP
connection for each query? Or are you sending multiple queries down the
connection, using HTTP/1.1?
Are you sending 10000 queries one after the other, or do you have (say)
query threads, each sending 100 queries?
30 seconds of wallclock time averages only 3ms per query, but the Nagle
explanation might work if you are running, say, 32 queries concurrently.
Other possibilities might be writing to log files, if the process does
open-write-close or write-flush each time. Running the process under
‘strace’ might give you a better idea.