Statistician II (#168)

Apologies if this appears as a repost, but the mailing list complained
it
was too large. Posting now in two parts:

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The three rules of Ruby Q. 2:

  1. Please do not post any solutions or spoiler discussion for this
    quiz until 48 hours have passed from the time on this message.

  2. Support Ruby Q. 2 by submitting ideas as often as you can! (A
    permanent, new website is in the works for Ruby Q. 2. Until then,
    please visit the temporary website at

    http://splatbang.com/rubyquiz/.

  3. Enjoy!
    Suggestion: A [QUIZ] in the subject of emails about the problem
    helps everyone on Ruby T. follow the discussion. Please reply to
    the original quiz message, if you can.

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This week’s quiz might look a little scary, but it’s not as bad as it
seems.
Give it a shot, and ask for help if you get stuck!

Statistician II

Last week’s quiz started the creation of a line-based pattern-matching
system: our statistician. This week, your task is to further develop a
solution from last week: organize the code and provide a more
interesting
interface.

The first thing is organization. This little library should be reusable
and
not tied to any particular parsing need. So we want to separate out the
“Statistician” from the client. To do this means moving the appropriate
code
into a separate file called statistician.rb, containing:

# statistician.rb
module Statistician
  # This module is your task! Your code goes here...
end

Meanwhile, the client code will now begin with:

# client.rb
require 'statistician'

Simple, eh?

Next, we will move the rules from their own data file and bring them
into
the code. Admittedly, moving data into code usually is not a wise thing
to
do, but as the primary data is that which the rules parse, we’re going
to do
it anyway. Besides, this is Ruby Q., so why not?

Simultaneously, we’re going to group rules together: rules that while
may
differ somewhat in appearance, essentially represent the same kind or
category of data. As the rules and category are client data, they will
go
into the client’s code. Here’s an example to begin, borrowing the LotRO
rules used last week.

# client.rb
class Offense < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "You wound[ the] <name>[ with <attack>] for <amount> point[s] 

of
[ damage]."
rule “You reflect point[s] of damage to[ the]
.”
end

class Victory < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "Your mighty blow defeated[ the] <name>."
end

Next, we need a parser (or Reporter, as I like to call it) that can
manage
these rules and classes, read the input data and process it all line by
line. Such client code looks like this:

# client.rb
lotro = Statistician::Reporter.new(Offense, Victory)
lotro.parse(File.read(ARGV[0]))

Finally, we need to begin getting useful information out of all the
records
that have been read and parsed by the Reporter. After the data is
parsed,
the final bit will be to support code such as this:

# client.rb
num = Offense.records.size
dmg = Offense.records.inject(0) { |s, x| s + x.amount.to_i }
puts "Average damage inflicted: #{dmg.to_f / num}"

puts Offense.records[0].class   # outputs "Offense"

What is going on here? The class Offense serves three purposes.

  1. Its declaration contains the rules for offensive related records.
  2. After parsing, the class method records returns an array of
    records
    that matched those rules.
  3. Those records are instances of the class, and instance methods that
    match the field names (extracted from the rules) provide access to a
    record’s data.

Hopefully this isn’t too confusing. I could have broken up some of these
responsibilities into other classes or sections of code, but since the
three
tasks are rather related, I thought it convenient and pleasing to group
them
all into the client’s declared class.

Below I’ll give the full, sample client file I’m using, as well as the
output it generates when run over the [hunter.txt][1] file we used last
week. A few hints, first…

  1. You are welcome to make statistician.rb depend on other Ruby
    modules.
    I personally found OpenStruct to be quite useful here.

  2. Personally, I found making Offense inherit from Reportable to
    be
    the cleanest method. At least, it is in my own code. There may be other
    ways
    to accomplish this goal: by include or extend methods. If you find
    those
    techniques more appealing, please go ahead, but make a note of it in
    your
    submission, since it does require changing how client code is written.

  3. Metaprogramming can get a bit tricky to explain in a couple
    sentences,
    so I’ll leave such hints and discussion for the mailing list. Aside from
    that, there are some good examples of metaprogramming looking back
    through
    past Ruby Q.zes. Of particular interest would be the [metakoans.rb
    quiz][2].

  4. Finally, my own solution for this week’s quiz is just under 80
    lines
    long, so it need not be overly complex to support the client file below.

((( Remainder of this Ruby Q. to come as a reply to this message. )))

Here is the complete, sample client file:

require 'statistician'

class Defense < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "[The ]<name> wounds you[ with <attack>] for <amount>

point[s] of [ damage]."
rule “You are wounded for point[s] of damage.”
end

class Offense < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "You wound[ the] <name>[ with <attack>] for <amount>

point[s] of [ damage]."
rule “You reflect point[s] of damage to[ the]
.”
end

class Defeat < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "You succumb to your wounds."
end

class Victory < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "Your mighty blow defeated[ the] <name>."
end

class Healing < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "You heal <amount> points of your wounds."
  rule "<player> heals you for <amount> of wound damagepoints."
end

class Regen < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "You heal yourself for <amount> Power points."
  rule "<player> heals you for <amount> Power points."
end

class Comment < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "### <comment> ###"
end

class Ignored < Statistician::Reportable
  rule "<player> defeated[ the] <name>."
  rule "<player> has succumbed to his wounds."
  rule "You have spotted a creature attempting to move stealthily

about."
rule “You sense that a creature is nearby but hidden from your
sight.”
rule “[The ] incapacitated you.”
end

if __FILE__ == $0
  lotro = Statistician::Reporter.new(Defense, Offense, Defeat,

Victory,
Healing, Regen, Comment,
Ignored)
lotro.parse(File.read(ARGV[0]))

  num = Offense.records.size
  dmg = Offense.records.inject(0) { |sum, off| sum +

Integer(off.amount.gsub(’,’, ‘_’)) }
d = Defense.records[3]

  puts <<-EOT
Number of Offense records: #{num}
Total damage inflicted: #{dmg}
Average damage per Offense: #{(100.0 * dmg / num).round / 100.0}

Defense record 3 indicates that a #{d.name} attacked me
using #{d.attack}, doing #{d.amount} points of damage.

Unmatched rules:
#{lotro.unmatched.join("\n")}

Comments:
#{Comment.records.map { |c| c.comment }.join("\n")}

  EOT
end

And here is the output it generates, using the hunter.txt data
file:

Number of Offense records: 1300
Total damage inflicted: 127995
Average damage per Offense: 98.46

Defense record 3 indicates that a Tempest Warg attacked me
using Melee Double, doing 108 points of damage.

Unmatched rules:
The Trap wounds Goblin-town Guard for 128 points of Common damage.
Nothing to cure.

Comments:
Chat Log: Combat 04/04 00:34 AM

One minor note, about this little bit of code:

Integer(off.amount.gsub(’,’, ‘_’)) }

I found that there was at least one instance of a number over one
thousand in the source file, using commas to separate. Neither the
Integer initializer nor the to_i methods recognize that, so this gsub
makes it safe to convert.

Thanks for this quiz, it was actually quite fun! You can find my
solution here:

http://pastie.org/228592

I didn’t expect my code to become this concise when I first read the
problem statement, but I guess that’s just the way Ruby works :slight_smile:

Matthias.

Here’s my own solution for this quiz (which I made sure I could do
reasonably before posting the quiz!). Very similar in appearance to
Matthias’ solution above.

As a pastie: http://pastie.org/228598

require ‘ostruct’

module Statistician

class Reportable < OpenStruct
def Reportable.inherited(klass)
# Give each individual Reportable some instance data.
# Doing it this way ensures each klass gets it’s own rules/
records, rather
# than sharing amongst all Reportables.
klass.instance_eval %{
@reportable_rules = []
@reportable_records = []
}
end

# Class methods

def self.rule(str)
  r = Rule.new(str)
  @reportable_rules << r
end

def self.match(str)
  data = nil
  if @reportable_rules.find { |rule| data = rule.match(str) }
    return data
  end
end

def self.records
  @reportable_records
end

# Helpers

class Rule
  def initialize(str)
    patt = Regexp.escape(str).gsub('\[', '(?:').gsub('\]',

‘)?’).gsub(/<(.+?)>/, ‘(.+?)’)
@pattern = Regexp.new("^#{patt}$")
@fields = str.scan(/<(.+?)>/).flatten.map { |f| f.to_sym }
end

  def match(str)
    if md = @pattern.match(str)
      Hash[*@fields.zip(md.captures).flatten]
    else
      nil
    end
  end
end

end # class Reportable

class Reporter
attr_reader :unmatched

def initialize(*reportables)
  @reportables = reportables
  @unmatched = []
end

def parse(text)
  text.each do |line|
    line.strip!
    data = nil
    if reportable = @reportables.find { |k| data = k.match(line) }
      reportable.records << reportable.new(data)
    else
      @unmatched << line
    end
  end
end

end # class Reporter

end # module Statistician

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