Only able to capture last exception

I am writing a script to validate some documents against an XSD. When a
document does not validate, I want to provide all the available
information about the reason(s) why it does not validate.

My problem is that it looks like two exceptions are raised in the
process of validating a document, but my method for dealing with the
exceptions only captures the last exception, and I would like to capture
all the exceptions.

Below is my program and its output. As you can see, two error messages
end up being sent to standard error, but the rescue part only captures
one (the last) error message.

Is there a good way to capture all of the exceptions generated in the
call to validate? I could play tricks like running the validation as a
system command and then parsing the standard error, but that seems very
clunky, and it feels like there should be a better way. I have tried
searching with Google and reading various references about exception
handling in Ruby, and not found the answer. Maybe I just don’t know the
right terms to use.

Please forgive my naive Ruby code below. I’m just starting out,
obviously. Thanks for any assistance or guidance.

[email protected]:~/xmlplay$ cat XML_Demo_5.rb
require ‘rubygems’
require ‘xml’

def myvalidate(theXMLDoc, theXSD)
valid = false
rescue StandardError => e
puts "message is: (#{e.to_s}); caller is: " + caller.inspect
valid = true
return valid

dtd ={


puts “Validation should fail:\n”

open(‘cookbook2.xml’, ‘w’) do |f|
f.write %{<?xml version="1.0"?>

A recipe A recipe } end

document = XML::Document.file(‘cookbook2.xml’)

if myvalidate(document,dtd)
puts “\nThe document was valid.”
puts “\nThe document was not valid.”

[email protected]:~/xmlplay$ ruby XML_Demo_5.rb 2> stderr
Validation should fail:
message is: (Error: No declaration for element title2 at
cookbook2.xml:5.); caller is: [“XML_Demo_5.rb:36”]

The document was not valid.
[email protected]:~/xmlplay$ cat stderr
Error: Element recipe content does not follow the DTD, expecting (title?
, problem)+, got (title title2 ) at cookbook2.xml:3.
Error: No declaration for element title2 at cookbook2.xml:5.
[email protected]:~/xmlplay$

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