Hi,

Why is it that when I can do this:

include Math

puts sqrt(169)

I can’t do this?:

class X

include Math

puts sqrt(169)

end

Does include do different things depending on where it is use? Is it

even the same include?

Thanks

-John

Hi,

Why is it that when I can do this:

include Math

puts sqrt(169)

I can’t do this?:

class X

include Math

puts sqrt(169)

end

Does include do different things depending on where it is use? Is it

even the same include?

Thanks

-John

On 10/14/06, John Ky [email protected] wrote:

Hi,

Why is it that when I can do this:

include Math

puts sqrt(169)

The method sqrt is a module method of Math.

Including a module at the toplevel makes the modules module methods,

private methods of the toplevel object main.

That’s why you can call sqrt(x) at the top level. It’s private

so you can’t do:

```
self.sqrt(169)
```

either.

I can’t do this?:

class X

include Math

puts sqrt(169)

endDoes include do different things depending on where it is use? Is it

even the same include?

As I said at the top level it makes module methods available as

private instance methods of the toplevel object.

In a class or module, include makes the instance methods, constants

and module variables of the included module available in the including

class/module.

Since sqrt is a module method and not an instance method of Module, it

doesn’t become part of X. It has to be called as Math::sqrt(val), or

Math.sqrt(val).

And they appear to be two different methods:

irb(main):001:0> self.method(:include)

=> #<Method: main.include>

irb(main):002:0> Module.method(:include)

=> #<Method: Class(Module)#include>

–

Rick DeNatale

My blog on Ruby

http://talklikeaduck.denhaven2.com/

John Ky schrieb:

end

Rick has already written about the differences between class scope and

toplevel scope. (Are you reading this, Tom?)

With #include you can call the Math methods in instance methods:

class X

include Math

def m

puts sqrt(169)

end

end

X.new.m # => 13.0

If you want to call the methods in class scope, you have to use #extend:

class X

extend Math

puts sqrt(169) # => 13.0

end

Regards,

Pit

On 10/16/06, Pit C. [email protected] wrote:

puts sqrt(169)

puts sqrt(169)

end

endX.new.m # => 13.0

And the reason that this works is that these functions are module

functions which act like a combination of class methods for the

module, and private instance methods.

The first lets you say

Math.sqrt(4)

and the second lets you say

class A

include Math

def meth

sqrt(4)

end

end

And the way you make a module function in one of your own modules is

either like this:

module MyModule

def foo

end

module_function :foo

end

or

module MyModule

module_function

def foo

end

end

The module_function method works like private and protected. With

arguments it makes specific methods module_functions, without

arguments it makes subsequently defined methods module_functions.

–

Rick DeNatale

My blog on Ruby

http://talklikeaduck.denhaven2.com/

IPMS/USA Region 12 Coordinator

http://ipmsr12.denhaven2.com/

Visit the Project Mercury Wiki Site

http://www.mercuryspacecraft.com/

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