How to generate Rails models from database schemas

I’m evaluating Rails (vs Django) for a new project. A requirement of
this
project is that the Rails app(s) be able to work with a database
(PostgreSQL, in case that matters) whose schemas (table definitions)
have
been created and, over time, will be modified independently of the Rails
app(s).

Though I’m a newbie to Rails, it already seems to be that Rails’
standard
mode of operation is: (1) Models are created and modified within Rails,
and then (2) Rails Migration creates and modifies the database table
definitions.

What I need is the opposite sequence: (1) The database table
definitions
are created and modified through tools external to Rails, and then (2)
the
Rails models are created and modified to fit the database table
definitions.

So my questions are:

  1. First and most important, is there a Gem (or some other tool in the
    Ruby-Rails world) that can generate a model from a database table
    definition?
  2. If not, presumably one could use Rails on a pre-existing database by
    manually editing the Rails models. Right?
  3. If that’s right, what are the requirements for the table designs to
    enable them to work as viable Rails models? It seems that one
    requirement
    is that each table have a sequence-assigned primary key named “id”.
    Right? Any others?

~ Thanks in advance
~ Ken

You don’t always have to work with Rails functionality to utilize a
database, not sure always true for PostgreSQL. The critical aspect is
how
you define your database connectivity in config/database.yml.

Perhaps helpful, check out brilliant Ryan B.’ RailsCast:
http://railscasts.com/episodes/342-migrating-to-postgresql

Liz

I know how to *connect *a Rails app to a PG database. My question is
about
how to align the Rails *contents *(model definitions) with the database
contents (table definitions), so that the app can read from and write to
the tables.

It think perhaps you’re answering “yes” to my question 2 - that is, I
can
keep the app and database contents aligned without using “Rails
functionality” by editing them manually. Right?

That still leaves question 1 and 3 unanswered.

On 22 May 2015 at 20:44, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

I’m evaluating Rails (vs Django) for a new project. A requirement of this
project is that the Rails app(s) be able to work with a database
(PostgreSQL, in case that matters) whose schemas (table definitions) have
been created and, over time, will be modified independently of the Rails
app(s).

Google for
rails legacy database
and you will get lots of useful hits

Colin

On Fri, May 22, 2015 at 12:44 PM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

What I need is the opposite sequence: (1) The database table definitions
are created and modified through tools external to Rails, and then (2) the
Rails models are created and modified to fit the database table definitions.

So my questions are:

  1. First and most important, is there a Gem (or some other tool in the
    Ruby-Rails world) that can generate a model from a database table
    definition?

If you have a table named “things”, all you need is a file named e.g.
thing.rb that contains

class Thing < ActiveRecord::Base
end

That will give you access to all the fields of that table.

  1. If not, presumably one could use Rails on a pre-existing database by
    manually editing the Rails models. Right?

See above.

  1. If that’s right, what are the requirements for the table designs to
    enable them to work as viable Rails models? It seems that one requirement
    is that each table have a sequence-assigned primary key named “id”. Right?

Not exactly. You do need a primary key, and it’s easiest with an
integer, and easiest if the name is “id”, but not necessary; I’ve got
an app using string ids based on a legacy db schema (from what
was previously a Java app).

Any others?

Depends on what you’re trying to do. I’d suggest just trying it :slight_smile:

The “schemas independently modified over time” part presages
some future pain, I would think; make sure you have really good
test coverage.

HTH, and good luck.

Hassan S. ------------------------ [email protected]
http://about.me/hassanschroeder
twitter: @hassan
Consulting Availability : Silicon Valley or remote

On May 22, 2015, at 2:32 PM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

My question is about how to align the Rails contents (model definitions) with
the database contents (table definitions), so that the app can read from and write
to the tables.

Largely, you just ignore migrations and mostly ignore Rails models.

Inherit from ActiveRecord::Base, list the attributes that can be bulk
set, and you’re done. Rails connects to the db and reads the schema. Now
of course you will wind up adding validations and calculations and
relations and so forth, and you may have to specify the table name if it
doesn’t follow RoR conventions. But really, the answer to your question
is not just “yes”, it’s “yes and it’s so easy that you’re completely
missing it by looking for something harder” :wink:


Scott R.
[email protected]
http://www.elevated-dev.com/
https://www.linkedin.com/in/scottribe/
(303) 722-0567 voice

Thanks a million to Scott, Hassan, & Colin, for this rich feast of
possibilities! It’s gonna take me some time to digest. Then I’ll be
back
with the solutions I’m finding and/or with more questions.

~ Ken

I think you just need to create Toy model and then use scaffold
controller
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4333393/using-rails-generate-scaffold-when-model-already-exists

On Mon, Jun 1, 2015 at 7:06 AM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/rubyonrails-talk/4a506cc5-5bf7-4f46-9628-b4dc6e7555b2%40googlegroups.com?utm_medium=email&utm_source=footer

.

For more options, visit https://groups.google.com/d/optout.


Mou Dareka no, tame janakutte
Jibun no Tame ni Warette Iru

( Aqua Timez - Alones )

On Sun, May 31, 2015 at 5:06 PM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

  1. An odd note is that there still is no schema.rb file in x/db/. If this
    is what Rails uses as its “database catalog”, is the lack of it going to
    cause trouble down the road?

Possibly, but you can use rake db:schema:dump to generate it
from your existing DB.

My next question is whether it is possible to sue the amazing Rails
generators - in particular, scaffold - to more quickly create an app that
works with an existing database - so it would not be necessary to go thru
all those manual steps shown above. I tried it once, and it tried to run
the migrator

I’ve never seen a scaffold command automatically run migrations;
can you be more specific about what led up to that?

You should be able to scaffold a model and then just delete the
migration file.


Hassan S. ------------------------ [email protected]
http://about.me/hassanschroeder
twitter: @hassan
Consulting Availability : Silicon Valley or remote

Thanks, Hassan ~ The rake command does the job of building (and
updating)
schema.rb. ~ Ken

Thank you, byakugie* ~*

Your link led me to the gem “schema-to-scaffold”, which enabled the
following scenario:

The aim is to get all the components generated automatically, but based
on
the database schema. I did it my using the gem *schema_to_scaffold,
*which
simply generates a script (one command in this case) that runs the
*scaffold
*generator in a way that drives off of the database schema for the new
table (users).

  1. Created a new database table, users:

sqlite> CREATE TABLE “users” (“id” INTEGER PRIMARY KEY

AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL, “name” text, “email” textuser);

sqlite> INSERT INTO users (name) VALUES (‘Jo’);

sqlite> SELECT * FROM users;

1|Jo|

  1. Installed *schema_to_scaffold *gem:

sqlite> gem install schema_to_scaffold

  1. Ran schema_to_scaffold for users:

[[email protected] x]$ scaffold -p db

Looking for schema.rb in db

  1. db/schema.rb

Select a path to the target schema:

Loaded tables:

  1. toys

  2. users

Options are:

4 for table 4; (4…6) for table 4 to 6; [4,6] for tables 4 and 6; * for
all
Tables

Select a table: 1

Script for scaffold:

rails generate scaffold User name:text email:text --no-migration

  1. Ran the script produced by schema_to_scaffold:

[[email protected] x]$ rails generate scaffold User name:text email:text
–no-migration

  invoke  active_record

  create    app/models/user.rb

  invoke    test_unit

  create      test/models/user_test.rb

  create      test/fixtures/users.yml

  invoke  resource_route

   route    resources :users

  invoke  scaffold_controller

  create    app/controllers/users_controller.rb

  invoke    erb

  create      app/views/users

  create      app/views/users/index.html.erb

  create      app/views/users/edit.html.erb

  create      app/views/users/show.html.erb

  create      app/views/users/new.html.erb

  create      app/views/users/_form.html.erb

  invoke    test_unit

  create      test/controllers/users_controller_test.rb

  invoke    helper

  create      app/helpers/users_helper.rb

  invoke      test_unit

  invoke    jbuilder

  create      app/views/users/index.json.jbuilder

  create      app/views/users/show.json.jbuilder

  invoke  assets

  invoke    coffee

  create      app/assets/javascripts/users.coffee

  invoke    scss

  create      app/assets/stylesheets/users.scss

  invoke  scss

  create    app/assets/stylesheets/scaffolds.scss
  1. *It works! *See http://x.sunward.webfactional.com/users/.

Amazing!

Next step will be to make a change in the database schema and see if/how
I
can get Rails to automagically update its model, controller, and views
to
fit.

Any how-to hints would be welcome.

~ Ken

Yaay! I’m happy to report success with my first attempt to make a Rails
app that works from an existing database.

This first experiment used (a) the simplest “instructions” I could find
(basically, Hassan’s); (b) a streamlined version of the “Getting Started
Guide” process for setting up a Rails app (but - this is crucial -
omitting the step of running the migrator); and © a pre-existing
(“legacy”) database that conforms to the Rails naming conventions.

For the benefit of other Rails newbies (or oldbies) that need to build
apps
on existing DBs, a play-by-play of what I did follows.

  1. Created new Rails app, x:
    [[email protected] rails_eval]$ rails new x

  2. Populated the “legacy” SQLite database with table toys, and added one
    row to that table:
    [[email protected] x]$ rails dbconsole
    SQLite version 3.6.20
    sqlite> CREATE TABLE toys (“id” INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT
    NULL,
    “name” TEXT);
    sqlite> INSERT INTO toys (name) VALUES (“Tinker”);
    sqlite> SELECT * FROM toys;
    1|Tinker|58

  3. Added the *toys *resource and root to routes.rb:
    Rails.application.routes.draw do
    resources :toys
    root ‘toys#index’
    end

  4. Used *rake *to see the resulting routes:
    [[email protected] x]$ rake routes
    Prefix Verb URI Pattern Controller#Action
    toys GET /toys(.:format) toys#index
    POST /toys(.:format) toys#create
    new_toy GET /toys/new(.:format) toys#new
    edit_toy GET /toys/:id/edit(.:format) toys#edit
    toy GET /toys/:id(.:format) toys#show
    PATCH /toys/:id(.:format) toys#update
    PUT /toys/:id(.:format) toys#update
    DELETE /toys/:id(.:format) toys#destroy

  5. Generated *toys *controller:
    [[email protected] x]$ rails generate controller toys
    create app/controllers/toys_controller.rb
    invoke erb
    create app/views/toys
    invoke test_unit
    create test/controllers/toys_controller_test.rb
    invoke helper
    create app/helpers/toys_helper.rb
    invoke test_unit
    invoke assets
    invoke coffee
    create app/assets/javascripts/toys.coffee
    invoke scss
    create app/assets/stylesheets/toys.scss

  6. Added the necessary CRUD methods to the *toys *controller:
    class ToysController < ApplicationController
    def index
    @toys = Toy.all
    end

    def show
    @toy = Toy.find(params[:id])
    end

    def new
    @toy = Toy.new
    end

    def create
    @toy = Toy.new(toy_params)
    if @toy.save
    redirect_to @toy
    else
    render ‘new’
    end
    end

    def edit
    @toy = Toy.find(params[:id])
    end

    def update
    @toy = Toy.find(params[:id])
    if @toy.update(toy_params)
    redirect_to @toy
    else
    render ‘edit’
    end
    end

    def destroy
    @toy = Toy.find(params[:id])
    @toy.destroy

     redirect_to toys_path
    

    end

    private
    def toy_params
    params.require(:toy).permit(:name)
    end
    end

  7. Made* index.html.erb, show.html.erb, new.html.erb, edit.html.erb,
    _form.html.erb, index.json.jbuilder, show.json.jbuilder,* following the
    pattern in http://guides.rubyonrails.org/getting_started.html.

  8. Created the *Toy *model file, toy.rb:
    class Toy < ActiveRecord::Base
    end

  9. In my browser, tried http://x.sunward.webfactional.com/toys. Feel
    free
    to try it yourself. (However, this is a temporary site that may be gone
    by
    the time you read this.) It works!!! That is, all the CRUDs execute
    as
    they should.

  10. An odd note is that there still is no schema.rb file in x/db/.
    If
    this is what Rails uses as its “database catalog”, is the lack of it
    going
    to cause trouble down the road?

Thanks again to Scott, Hassan, & Colin for your key clues.

My next question is whether it is possible to sue the amazing Rails
generators - in particular, scaffold - to more quickly create an app
that
works with an existing database - so it would not be necessary to go
thru
all those manual steps shown above. I tried it once, and it tried to
run
the migrator and croaked when it found that the DB table was already
there. But that may have been pilot error on my part. Comments and
advice
would be welcome.

~ Ken

Next step: I have succeeded in adding a column to a database table,
then
using the generator tools to update the Rails objects that implement
that
model. The process, which I share for what it’s worth to others, is:

  1.  Add attribute *toys.color* (text):
    

sqlite> ALTER TABLE toys ADD COLUMN color TEXT;

sqlite> INSERT INTO toys (name, color) VALUES (‘Tinker’, ‘Green’);

sqlite> select * from toys;

1|Tinker|Green

  1.  Ran rake db:schema:dump to update schema.rb:
    

ActiveRecord::Schema.define(version: 0) do

create_table “toys”, force: :cascade do |t|

t.text "name"

*t.text "color"*

end

  1.  Ran *schema_to_scaffold* for *toys*:
    

[[email protected] x]$ scaffold -p db

Loaded tables:

  1. toys

  2. users

Select a table: 0

Script for scaffold:

rails generate scaffold Toy name:text color:text --no-migration

  1.  Ran *scaffold *using that script:
    

[[email protected] x]$ rails generate scaffold Toy name:text color:text
–no-migration

  invoke  active_record

conflict    app/models/toy.rb

Overwrite /home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/models/toy.rb? (enter
“h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force    app/models/toy.rb

  invoke    test_unit

  create      test/models/toy_test.rb

  create      test/fixtures/toys.yml

  invoke  resource_route

   route    resources :toys

  invoke  scaffold_controller

conflict    app/controllers/toys_controller.rb

Overwrite
/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/controllers/toys_controller.rb?
(enter “h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force    app/controllers/toys_controller.rb

  invoke    erb

   exist      app/views/toys

conflict      app/views/toys/index.html.erb

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/index.html.erb? (enter
“h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/index.html.erb

conflict      app/views/toys/edit.html.erb

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/edit.html.erb? (enter
“h”
for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/edit.html.erb

conflict      app/views/toys/show.html.erb

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/show.html.erb? (enter
“h”
for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/show.html.erb

conflict      app/views/toys/new.html.erb

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/new.html.erb? (enter
“h”
for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/new.html.erb

conflict      app/views/toys/_form.html.erb

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/_form.html.erb? (enter
“h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/_form.html.erb

  invoke    test_unit

conflict      test/controllers/toys_controller_test.rb

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/test/controllers/toys_controller_test.rb?
(enter “h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      test/controllers/toys_controller_test.rb

  invoke    helper

identical app/helpers/toys_helper.rb

  invoke      test_unit

  invoke    jbuilder

conflict      app/views/toys/index.json.jbuilder

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/index.json.jbuilder?
(enter “h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/index.json.jbuilder

conflict      app/views/toys/show.json.jbuilder

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/views/toys/show.json.jbuilder?
(enter “h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/views/toys/show.json.jbuilder

  invoke  assets

  invoke    coffee

identical app/assets/javascripts/toys.coffee

  invoke    scss

conflict      app/assets/stylesheets/toys.scss

Overwrite

/home/sunward/webapps/rails_eval/x/app/assets/stylesheets/toys.scss?
(enter
“h” for help) [Ynaqdh] Y

   force      app/assets/stylesheets/toys.scss

  invoke  scss

identical

  1.  *It **work**s!* See http://x.sunward.webfactional.com/toys/.
    

However: This process has only a limited ability to update the Rails
objects to handle the database change while preserving manually entered
changes to them. Specifically: For each Rails file where the new
(generated) version differs from the existing (possibly manually
modified)
version, you get to choose between keeping the old version (so it
doesn’t
match the database changes) or replacing it with the new version (so any
manual updates to the old version are lost). In other words, I haven’t
found a way to generate a new file that is a combination of the old and
the
new - that is, it is identical to the old file in all respects except
that
it implements the database schema changes.

So…

Next question: Are there any Rails tools that can generate a
“combined” file in the sense just defined? Is there any way to generate
a
“combined” file in the sense just defined? - either with other Rails
tools
or with options to the tools used in the above scenarios?

I know that meaningfully merging two versions of an object quickly gets
us
into the “hard problem” zone. But I notice that the prompts that
*scaffold
*puts out do offer to show you a “diff” of the old vs new versions of
each
file. It shouldn’t be too hard to give the user the opportunity to
choose
between the old and the new versions of each line that differs, and that
would enable the user to produce the desired “combination” in most
cases.
Short of that, an option to tag the new file with a slightly different
file
name from the old file would enable the user to use an external “diff
editor” to compare and manually merge the two versions fairly
efficiently.

So, I’m wondering, does the Rails World contain any tools that can do
this?

~ Thanks yet again
~ Ken

On Jun 4, 2015, at 2:21 PM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

Next step: I have succeeded in adding a column to a database table, then using
the generator tools to update the Rails objects that implement that model. The
process, which I share for what it’s worth to others, is:

  1.  Add attribute toys.color (text):
    
  2.  Ran rake db:schema:dump to update schema.rb:
    
  3.  Ran schema_to_scaffold for toys:
    
  4.  Ran scaffold using that script:
    

However: This process has only a limited ability to update the Rails objects…

I do wonder if you really understand: steps 2 through 4 were
unnecessary. You can manage your database schema using Rails &
migrations, or you can manage it completely outside of Rails. Either
option is pretty easy, while a mishmash combination of the two is not so
easy.


Scott R.
[email protected]
http://www.elevated-dev.com/
https://www.linkedin.com/in/scottribe/
(303) 722-0567 voice

On 4 June 2015 at 21:21, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

it implements the database schema changes.

So…

Next question: Are there any Rails tools that can generate a “combined”
file in the sense just defined? Is there any way to generate a “combined”
file in the sense just defined? - either with other Rails tools or with
options to the tools used in the above scenarios?

The reason no work has been done on this is that the scaffold is
intended merely as a quick and dirty method of getting some basic
functionality up and running. By the time you have a real application
going it is most unlikely that much of the original scaffolding code
will remain.

Colin

You’re misreading my step 1: “Add attribute toys.color (text)”. That
was
added to the *database schema, *not to the Rails model definition. So
steps 2-4 (or some equivalent process in Rails) absolutely were
necessary.
Otherwise the Rails app would have gone on oblivious to the change in
the
DB schema.

On Jun 4, 2015, at 5:26 PM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

You’re misreading my step 1: “Add attribute toys.color (text)”. That was added
to the database schema, not to the Rails model definition. So steps 2-4 (or some
equivalent process in Rails) absolutely were necessary. Otherwise the Rails app
would have gone on oblivious to the change in the DB schema.

No, I did not misread it. As I suspected, you still do not understand
what we have been trying to tell you: Rails WILL READ THE SCHEMA FROM
THE DATABASE. Your steps 2 through 4 were unnecessary, and, as I said
before:

You can manage your database schema using Rails & migrations, or you can
manage it completely outside of Rails. Either option is pretty easy,
while a mishmash combination of the two is not so easy.


Scott R.
[email protected]
http://www.elevated-dev.com/
https://www.linkedin.com/in/scottribe/
(303) 722-0567 voice

Yeah, I figured something like that was the case. Probably that’s the
case
with most/all Rails generators (like most of the generators in the
world) -
they’re good for a one-time kick-start, but not much good after that.

Still, a generator that could write on something other than a blank
slate
would be a very valuable addition to the toolkit. And doable.

Well, it would be nice to do in one step what I thought required four!
So
let me try…

  1. Add another attribute toys.size to the schema (this looks
    different
    from the previous step 1 only because I have replaced my SQLite DB with
    a
    PostgreSQL one, named sunward_x:
    [[email protected] x]$ rails dbconsole

    psql (9.1.15)
    SSL connection (cipher: DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA, bits: 256)
    sunward_x=> \d toys
    Table “public.toys”
    Column | Type | Modifiers
    --------±------------------±----------------------------------------------
    id | bigint | not null default
    nextval(‘toy_seq’::regclass)
    name | character varying |
    color | character varying |
    price | money |
    sunward_x=> ALTER TABLE toys ADD size INTEGER;
    ALTER TABLE
    sunward_x=> \d toys
    Table “public.toys”
    Column | Type | Modifiers
    --------±------------------±----------------------------------------------
    id | bigint | not null default
    nextval(‘toy_seq’::regclass)
    name | character varying |
    color | character varying |
    price | money |
    size | integer |

If step 1 is all that’s needed, I should be able to bring up any *toys
*page
an see the new *size *column, right? But I don’t:

As far as I can tell, at this point the app does indeed seem to be
oblivious to the change in the DB schema. If so, certainly *something
*more
needs to be done to update the app.

Perhaps I can go right ahead to my old step 4, which is to run
*scaffold, *without
updating schema.rb (old step 2) or running schema_to_scaffold (old
step
3). Perhaps, as you say, “Rails WILL READ THE SCHEMA FROM THE DATABASE”
and gen everything up if I just do this.

[[email protected] x]$ rails generate scaffold Toy --no-migration

Well, no. What it has done is to gen up a *Toys *model (and supporting
views) with no columns at all:

Maybe step 2 is necessary to do before step 4, still skipping step 3?
[[email protected] x]$ rake db:schema:dump
[[email protected] x]$ rails generate scaffold Toy --no-migration

That does, of course, add the new column to schema.rb. But the
*scaffold
*generator still puts out model objects that are devoid of columns; the
*toys
*web page looks just like it did before.

Of course, I can omit step 3, because all *schema_to_scaffold *does is
“READ THE SCHEMA FROM THE DATABASE” and put out a suitable command for
invoking *scaffold. *But without it, I have to read the database schema
myself and manually type the list of columns into the scaffold
command.
Not sure what’s easier about that.

So, if there really is a simpler process for doing this, I guess I need
you
to spell it out for me.

Hmm… Maybe this statement from you is a clue to where we have
miscommunicated: “You can manage your database schema using Rails &
migrations, or you can manage it completely outside of Rails. Either
option
is pretty easy, while a mishmash combination of the two is not so easy.”
This whole thread is not about “managing my database schema” - as
stated
in the original post, I intend to create and make all changes to my DB
schema entirely outside of Rails. Given that intention, this post is
about managing
the Rails objects that work with the database schema
, and using Rails
generators and other tools to automate that process as much as is
possible. If you have any ideas for how to do that faster/better/easier
than the procedures that I have cobbled together so far thru
trial-and-error and the hints provided in this thread, I would be
grateful
to hear them.

~ Tx, Ken

On Jun 4, 2015, at 9:19 PM, kenatsun [email protected] wrote:

Well, it would be nice to do in one step what I thought required four!

  1. Exactly as you did, add the column to the table.

Now it’s there. Use it, just like any other column. Add it to any view
you wish. Do anything you wish with it in a controller.

Why on earth would you keep re-generating scaffolds over and over??? A
scaffold is a starting point; it is not your app code. People have told
you (over and over) that you do not maintain Rails apps by generating &
re-generating scaffolds.


Scott R.
[email protected]
http://www.elevated-dev.com/
https://www.linkedin.com/in/scottribe/
(303) 722-0567 voice

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