Chapter 9


I’m currently stunk on this issue for few days and I do not know how
to get it fixed.

The system always raises this error message :

order is closed

and here is my order.rb:

class Order < ActiveRecord::Base
include ActiveMerchant::Billing
before_validation :set_status

attr_protected :id, :customer_ip, :status, :error_message, :updated_at,

attr_accessor :card_type, :card_number, :card_expiration_month,
:card_expiration_year, :card_verification_value
validates_size_of :order_items, :minimum => 1
validates_length_of :ship_to_first_name, :in => 2…255
validates_length_of :ship_to_last_name, :in => 2…255
validates_length_of :ship_to_address, :in => 2…255
validates_length_of :ship_to_city, :in => 2…255
validates_length_of :ship_to_postal_code, :in => 2…255
validates_length_of :ship_to_country, :in => 2…255
validates_length_of :phone_number, :in => 7…20
validates_length_of :customer_ip, :in => 7…15
validates_format_of :email, :with => /^([^@\s]+)@((?:[-a-z0-9]+.)+
validates_inclusion_of :status, :in => %w(open processed closed

validates_inclusion_of :card_type, :in => [‘Visa’, ‘MasterCard’,
‘Discover’], :on => :create
validates_length_of :card_number, :in => 13…19, :on => :create
validates_inclusion_of :card_expiration_month, :in => %w(1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12), :on => :create
validates_inclusion_of :card_expiration_year, :in => %w(2006 2007
2008 2009 2010 2017), :on => :create
validates_length_of :card_verification_value, :in => 3…4, :on
=> :create

has_many :order_items
has_many :books, :through => :order_items
def total
order_items.inject(0) {|sum, n| n.price * n.amount + sum}

def process
if closed? raise “Order is closed”
rescue => e
logger.error(“Order #{id} failed with error message #{e}”)
self.error_message = ‘Error while processing order’
self.status = ‘failed’
self.status == ‘processed’

def process_with_active_merchant
Base.gateway_mode = :test
gateway =
:login => ‘’,
:password => ‘xxxxxx’,
:pem =>, “…/…/
#:cert_path => File.join(File.dirname(FILE), “…/…/config/

gateway.connection.wiredump_dev = STDERR
creditcard =
  :type                 => card_type,
  :number               => card_number,
  :verification_value => card_verification_value,
  :month                => card_expiration_month.to_i,
  :year                 => card_expiration_year.to_i,
  :first_name           => ship_to_first_name,
  :last_name            => ship_to_last_name
# Buyer information
params = {
  :order_id =>,
  :email => email,
  :address => { :address1 => ship_to_address,
                :city => ship_to_city,
                :country => ship_to_country,
                :zip => ship_to_postal_code
  :description => 'Books',
  :ip => customer_ip
response = gateway.purchase(total, creditcard, params)
if response.success?
  self.status = 'processed'
  self.error_message = response.message
  self.status = 'failed'

def set_status
self.status = “open” if self.status.blank?


I don’t know what’s wrong. Any help will be greatly appreciated.

Arte Fact

Well, that exception is obviously being raised in the first line of
#process. What do you get in your logs if you put this as the first line
in #process?

logger.debug “closed is ‘#{self.closed.inspect}’”

I assume closed? is returning true. I don’t use ActiveMerchant so I am
not sure what closed is, but this should send you in the right


Hello Bill,

I tried it but I got an error message saying the the method
self.closed did not exist.

Thank you for your help.

Aret Fact

according to the source code’s chapter 9 order.rb file at, this class also has this
instance method:

def closed?
status == ‘closed’

which wasn’t included in the original posting. did you end up adding
this method to make the error message go away?

have you read or are in the process of reading the apress book,
beginning ruby on rails e-commerce (by hellsten and laine),
particularly chapter 9: checkout and order processing ? if so,
perhaps you might be able to help…

this posting is a spin-off of the posting,

i encountered a similar problem as arte, despite including the order
class’ closed? method.

to test the rest of the code without the condition if the status of
the order was closed (i believed i could safely assume it was ‘open’
for the time being), i took out the following line:
if closed? raise “Order is closed”
(with its corresponding ‘end’ statement.)

now a new problem arose, and in my development.log i see the following
error message:

“Order XX failed with undefined method `connection’ for

that was prompted by the rescue instructions,
logger.error(“Order #{id} failed with error message #{e}”)

so i tried looking for this so-called string/method/reference to
‘connection’ in the vendor/plugins/active_merchant/lib/active_merchant/
billing/gateways/paypal files, particularly in the PaypalGateway
class, but to no avail :frowning:

i am confused. is it possible it is looking for ‘connection’ through
other components that do exist in the PaypalGateway class contents
or ?

if interested or it would be helpful, the source code for this chapter
9 (and others) in this book are available here: