Forum: Ruby How does Ruby handle namespace?

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7fbd0e99b27064b14793f028022974e5?d=identicon&s=25 Zhao Yi (youhaodeyi)
on 2008-11-17 12:57
In Java, it uses import to include other classes from other packages. In
ruby, I only found that require statement can do this. When the ruby
scripts are located in different directories, I have to use the "../../"
to indicate these dependency directories. Is there a standard or better
way to declares package? Does ruby have something like CLASSPATH in
Java?
753dcb78b3a3651127665da4bed3c782?d=identicon&s=25 Brian Candler (candlerb)
on 2008-11-17 13:42
I'd say it's probably quicker to read the Ruby documentation on these
topics, rather than asking how Java is different, because Java *is*
different.

A good start is http://www.ruby-doc.org/docs/ProgrammingRuby/ - this is
the free, 1st edition of the "Pickaxe" Programming Ruby book, written
for ruby 1.6.

There is now a revised 2nd edition for 1.8, and the 3rd edition for 1.9
is in beta. These are available from bookshops or www.pragprog.com (in
PDF, book, or combo pack)

The 1.6 stuff is pretty much still valid, it's just that 1.8 adds new
classes and methods.

> In Java, it uses import to include other classes from other packages. In
> ruby, I only found that require statement can do this. When the ruby
> scripts are located in different directories, I have to use the "../../"
> to indicate these dependency directories. Is there a standard or better
> way to declares package? Does ruby have something like CLASSPATH in
> Java?

In brief:

"require 'foo'" looks for file foo.rb, and loads and runs it (unless
foo.rb has already been loaded, in which case it's a no-op)

The search path is the array $LOAD_PATH (or $: for short), and the
record of which files have already been loaded is in $LOADED_FEATURES

Namespaces are handled entirely separately, using class and module
keywords. A Module defines a new namespace, and a Class is a Module
which can be instantiated to create objects.

How you organise your files is up to you, but it is conventional to have
a lib/ subdirectory for your project. Then

module Foo
  class Bar
    ...
  end
end

would typically be put into lib/foo/bar.rb

If you do this, then you can load it using

  require 'foo/bar'
  obj = Foo::Bar.new

All this requires is lib/ to be in your search path.

You can arrange this from the command line:

   ruby -Ilib main.rb

or you can do something like this in your main program:

   $LOAD_PATH.unshift(File.dirname(__FILE__)+"/lib")

If your main program is inside a bin/ directory then you'd do

   $LOAD_PATH.unshift(File.dirname(__FILE__)+"/../lib")

HTH,

Brian.
87349a7a95b3f2e83c20194ef122885c?d=identicon&s=25 Einar Magnús Boson (Guest)
on 2008-11-17 13:42
(Received via mailing list)
commandline:

ruby -I includedir1:includedir2:etc app.rb
(i.e "i".upcase)

in ruby $: holds the include path

On 17.11.2008, at 11:53 , Zhao Yi wrote:

> Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.
>


Einar Magnús Boson
+354-661 1649
einarmagnus@tistron.se
einar.boson@gmail.com
84ae88b11c1c8da98ae1f229653ee756?d=identicon&s=25 Tony Lawetta (Guest)
on 2008-11-23 14:20
(Received via mailing list)
Zhao Yi wrote:
> When the ruby
> scripts are located in different directories, I have to use the "../../"
> to indicate these dependency directories. Is there a standard or better
> way to declares package?

I usually add elements (path names) to the value of the Array "$:"
(variable name is without the double quotes).

Tony
7fbd0e99b27064b14793f028022974e5?d=identicon&s=25 Zhao Yi (youhaodeyi)
on 2008-11-24 01:28
OK, thanks very much for your information.
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